Künstlerinnen der Moderne


Identität und Körperbilder

Strukturwandel:
Identitätspolitik und Kunst im Kampf um das Ich

„Identitätspolitik“ – Oft ist man schon über den Begriff gestolpert, gehört er doch heute zum geläufigen Wortschatz der neuen Generationen. Fast vorwurfsvoll wird ihnen der Begriff „Identitätspolitik“, gleichgesetzt mit dem Prozess der Singularisierung, aufgedrängt. Doch was steckt wirklich dahinter und wie hat sich die Bedeutung im letzten Jahrhundert verändert?

 

Abb. 1: Markus Spiske, Nürnberg, 2020.

War der Begriff „Identitätspolitik“ eins ein wichtiges Instrument für die Kritik von Strukturen der Exklusion, ist er heute zu einem stark umstrittenen Konzept avanciert. Die wichtigste Veränderung spiegelt sich in der Artikulation identitätspolitischer Forderungen:  zu Beginn der Debatte, die ungefähr zur gleichen Zeit auftrat wie die Feministische Kunst, stand das Gemeinschaftsgefühl, die Verbindung mit einer Community zum Zwecke der Sichtbarmachung marginalisierter Gruppen im Fokus.[1] Gehen heute die Tendenzen dahin, seine Zugehörigkeit zu einer nichtdominanten Gruppe dazu zu verwenden, individuell sichtbarer aus der Masse herauszuragen. Laut der Künstlerin Hito Steyerl dreht sich die heutige Identitätspolitik weniger um einen tatsächlichen Kampf für verbesserte politische Verhältnisse, als um eine »rein kulturelle Sichtbarmachung verschiedenster Ego-Modelle«.[2] Das Bestreben bestehende Strukturen aufzubrechen ist den Hintergrund geraten.

 

Lange Zeit galt „Identität“ als zentraler Topos der Politik. Doch nicht zuletzt standen die Konstruktionsmechanismen und die Effekte der Identitätspolitik im Mittelpunkt der öffentlichen Debatten. Die Einsicht, dass soziale Kategorien nicht nur deskriptiv, sondern immer schon Teil von Machtstrukturen und dementsprechend ausschließend sind, spielen dabei eine große Rolle. Seit den 90er- Jahren brachte die Veröffentlichung von Judith Butlers Gender Trouble. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity feministische Identitätspolitik mit ins Spiel.  Butler fragt in diesem Zusammenhang: „Inwiefern stellt ‚Identität’ eher ein normatives Ideal als ein deskriptives Merkmal der Erfahrung dar?“[3] Reicht die Illusion einer gemeinsamen essentialistischen Erfahrungswelt aus, um emanzipatorische Bewegungen zu erhalten?

Anhand der drei Künstlerinnen – Werefkin, Antin und Muholi – möchten wir verschiedene Aspekte der feministischen Identitätspolitik über ein ganzes Jahrhundert hinweg vorstellen und neue Perspektiven für einen pluralen Diskurs eröffnen. Dabei sehen wir Vollständigkeit nicht als ein erstrebenswertes Ziel an, sondern verstehen unseren Blog-Beitrag als weiteren Schritt in Richtung einer Welt ohne strukturelle Diskriminierung und Ausgrenzung.

[1] Aufzeichnung der „Good to Talk“-Podiumsdiskussion. 2017.

[2] Stange, 2020. 

[3] Vogel, 2008.


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Ein Beitrag von Xymena Gendera, Elsa Hütter und Melina Hartman

Literaturverzeichnis

Aufzeichnung der „Good to Talk“-Podiumsdiskussion. 2017. „Unter: Identitätspolitik und Kunst: Der Kampf um das Ich“ Berlin: Monopol.

Stange, Raimar. 2020. „Über eine Moral in schwarz-weiss: Keine Kunst” erschienen in: FUTURZWEI. Berlin: Taz.

Vogel, Sonja. 2008. „Feministische Identitätspolitik – Zur Handlungsfähigkeit postsouveräner Subjekte“ Berlin: HU Berlin.

Abbildungsverzeichnis

Abb. 1: Markus Spiske, Nürnberg, 2020, Unsplash. https://unsplash.com/photos/-iOE0qBkioc (Letzter Zugriff 14.02.2021)

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